Action Comics #1 starts with a baby superman-to-be sent forth from the doomed planet Kryptonite. Sent forth with his father’s desire that he become a force for good on Earth. The Amazing Spider-Man #1 tells how Peter Parker gained super-powers after he was bitten by the radio-active spider and how he became Spider-man in reaction to his uncle Ben’s murder.
In the same way, if you take any superhero movie that’s the first in its franchise, you’ll find a genesis story of that superhero — a tale that tells the audience:
- How the hero came to posses his powers,
- Who the hero is as a person, and
- What his mission is and Why he’s dedicated to it
If you don’t do that, you’re hero won’t be believable. Nor will he be sympathetic. You’ll end up with a character whose super powers will seem too fantastic and “made up,” and who will fail to inspire anyone to care about or root for him.
It’s that simple: no genesis story, no superhero.
Superheros and Advertising
Interestingly, the three tasks of a Genesis story overlay perfectly with Aristotle’s three elements of Ethos — the three things you must establish in order to persuade through an appeal to character. Here’s how they match-up, using Jay Henrich’s modern updates for the Ethos elements of phronesis, eunoia, and arete:
- Craft = Phronesis / Practical Wisdom = Powers
- Caring = Eunoia / Goodwill = Who the hero is as a person
- Cause = Areté / Virtue = Mission
Want to present a business owner as someone prospective customers should like and trust?
Then you need to cover these character elements. You have to convince the audience that the owner is great at what he does, that he cares about his customers, and that, at the end of the day, he’s on a bigger mission than just making money.
And once you understand the superhero angle, it becomes pretty obvious that the most powerful way to communicate these elements is through a Genesis story.
Put more directly, if you’re presenting the business owner as someone with superpowers — whether that’s the power to heroically save the customer from a tough situation, or simply the power to do X better than any other business on the planet — than you’re presenting them as a de facto superhero, and you need to tell the darn genesis story to make that message at all believable.
A Jewelry Superhero Genesis Story
Want an example of an Advertising Genesis story?
Here’s one from my business partner, Roy Williams [paragraphing mine]:
“When I was seven years old, I held my father’s head in my hands as he took his last breath and died. A thing like that stays with you. It helps you understand that relationships – people – are what life’s all about.You gotta tell’em you love’em.
This is J.R. Dunn. So now you know why I became a jeweler. Fine jewelry is one of the ways we tell people we love ’em. When I got older and fell head-over-heals for Ann Marie, the love of my life, I didn’t have enough money to buy her an engagement ring. She married me anyway. Go figure.
But I can promise you this: If you’re thinking of getting engaged to the love of your life, come to J.R. Dunn Jewelers in Lighthouse Point. No one in Florida, no one in America, is going to give you a better engagement ring for your money than me. One of the great joys of my life is to make it possible for guys to give the woman they love the diamond she deserves.
There was nobody there for me when I needed an engagement ring. But I promise I’ll be there for you.”
After hearing this ad, you now know, with absolute clarity:
- What kind of person J.R. Dunn is
- How he got his superpowers (along with how those superpowers can help you)
- What mission he’s on and why he’s dedicated to it
Better yet, you not only know these things about him, but you believe them. You believe these things about J.R. Dunn because he told you his genesis story. See how that works?
So what’s YOUR genesis story, and are you bothering to tell it the way it ought to be told?
Back in 1973, Master Lock ran one of the most effective Super Bowl ads of all time. If you haven’t seen it before, here it is:
Now, I’m not sure how many criminals would shoot a lock — seems to me they’d be more likely to just use a pair of bolt cutters — but that doesn’t matter, because watching a lock literally take a bullet and still continue to do its job impresses us at a fundamental, symbolic, and subconscious level.
And it’s this subconscious, largely symbolic level where real buying decisions are made, which is one reason why Master Lock, bolstered by the success of this ad, went on to dominate the industry in 70s and continues to be dominant today.
In fact, people still talk about this “tough under fire” demonstration to this day. Heck it featured in an episode of MythBusters.
Of course, the difference between today and the 70’s is that now customers expect to be able to find more information on the internet. So if Master Lock were to run an ad like that today, we’d expect to go to the website, see the ad, and then get more information, presumably including an added demonstration of how the haft of the lock is hardened against regular bolt cutters and such.
In other words, the Web is where we expect businesses to add more info, close more loopholes, and really convince us — all after they’ve impressed us with their mass media ads.
And that brings me to the ad Master Lock really should have aired last Sunday. Because you don’t know it, but the front door lock on your house is ridiculously, stupidly easy to overcome. It doesn’t even require regular lock-picking skills or really anything close to what one might call special tools or skills.
Nope. Picking the lock on your house simply requires a bumpkey and a few minute demo on how to use it. See for yourself within the first 90 seconds of this news special:
Think you could make a pretty dramatic ad out of that bit of info?
Yeah. Me too.
Now, here’s the thing — Master Lock has come up with a lock cylinder that’s pretty much bump-proof. Unfortunately their promotional video for the technology is slow, boring, and long. It is, however, convincing:
So why not have a super dramatic, riveting Super Bowl ad that demonstrates lock bumping and how exposed 99% of all homes are to the technique, then showcasing how bump-proof Master Lock’s new lock cylinders are?
If you really want to get serious, throw out a challenge:
- Viewers pick out a replacement Master Lock for their door and order it along with home installation to be done by a a local Master Lock dealer,
- All of which is FREE if the installation crew can’t bump lock the front door lock they’ll be replacing on your home.
- “If we can’t open your door lock as easy as this [image of bump lock opening] your new Master Lock is on us!
- See complete details at masterlock.com
What do you want to bet that that ad would sell a boat load of new door locks?
And that’s the ad we should have seen this Super Bowl.
OK, before we do anything else, just watch this Audi Superbowl Commercial:
Now, let’s talk about why that’s such an amazing piece of storytelling…
How Long Is a Moment?
There’s an apocryphal quote attributed to Steven Spielberg that talks about feature-length movies as “60 two-minute scenes” — with each scene capable of capturing and riveting the audience’s attention. It’s a fabulous way to think about filmic storytelling.
And, for advertising, it works just as well on the small scale.
Psychologists and neuroscientists tell us that a moment lasts 2.5 to 3 seconds, which is also roughly the same amount of time our brains can hold and process in working memory.
Handshakes last a moment. So do hugs. So does a glance into someone else’s eyes. Go longer than that and it’s both more than a moment and more than a slight change!
A moment, then, is exactly how long a single, vivid mental image is held in the mind’s eye. Draw the imagery out too much longer than that and you’re either building tension or risking the loss of your audience’s attention.
So for me, I don’t think of a 30-second spot as 30 seconds, I think of it as 10 great moments (or 20 moments for a 60 second spot).
That’s 10 mental images, each vivid and interesting enough to capture the imagination, strung together to form a riveting mini-movie. For a TV spot it’s a real mini-movie, and for a Radio or Print Ad, its a movie in the mind. Either way, creating one is a game of sequencing mental images for maximum impact.
All of which leaves only two questions:
- How do you pack as much wallop into each 3 second moment/image as possible
- How do you ensure that the moments all build into a meaningful story that ends with a bang
Packing Wallop Into a 3-Second Moment
Obviously, this is a big topic. Whole books could be (and have been) written about it. But here are the main techniques that come to my mind when I think about making each moment count:
- Entering late and leaving early through ritual,
- Visual Intrigue Through Imbalance (aka trouble),
- Forced participation/closure/enthymematic communication,
- Vivid & Striking Imagery (+ Persuasive Imagery) and Symbolism
- Speaking to Self-Image
- Leveraging High Stakes
And while all of these elements are important (and can be found in the Audi ad) I can’t help but feel that the first one, the use of ritual, or what Terry Rossio describes as situation-based writing, is the key to most of the others. It’s also the one that struck me the hardest when I watched Audi’s 2013 Superbowl Ad.
Watch the ad again and see if you can’t pick out every single ritualistic moment that whaps you in the face every three seconds:
- Looking in the mirror before a big event
- Mom seeing you off before High School Prom
- Younger sibling/sister as truth teller
- Dad handing you the keys to the car
- The visceral thrill of firing up a high-performance V-8
- Pulling up to and glancing over at the other car at a light
- Looking on with envy at the antics of the (limo-riding) in-group
- “Burning” the other car at a light
- Parking in the “Big Man’s” reserved spot to thumb your nose at authority
- Strutting into a building while cooly flicking the car lock remote
- Entering a happening dance/club/party
- Stalking your way through a crowded dance floor/club/party.
- Spotting the hottest girl in the room
- Approaching a hot girl dancing in the midst of all her friends
- Taking a chance at kissing the pretty girl of your dreams
- The high school fight (over a girl)
- The post-fight black eye (worn with pride)
- The post-kiss sigh of ecstasy
- The “it was worth it” rebel yell
- The ending message: “Bravery. It’s what defines us.”
What you’ll notice, as you watch the film, is that the vast majority of those moments come and go before you ever have a chance to get bored with them.
The ad always enters these scenes late and then leaves early because the creators chose each moment with care: they’re either archetypal American growing-up rituals or just everyday, everyone-has-them rituals. No backstory or explanation required; we encounter them in media res and instantly know what’s going on.
Not only that, but many of these moments are further augmented by multiple camera shots within the space of a single 3-second moment. These storytellers are putting the peddle to the metal visually, ’cause they ain’t taking a chance with losing your attention.
Only two of those moments are allowed to linger and grow pregnant with suspense:
- Spotting/walking up to the girl and kissing the girl being one sequence, and
- The brewing, shocked, then angry reaction of the prom king.
Those sequences grow past a single moment because they gain in suspense and interest as they move past three seconds in length.
He kisses her for more than a moment, which sends your mind off spinning: How long is he going to kiss her? Is she going to slap him? No, holy crap, she’s kissing him back! Shit, her date sees him, he’s about to deck him, isn’t he?
The other thing about these particular moments is that they’re the obligatory scenes in the story.
Once the inciting incident kicks off —- once you find out the kid is going to prom alone — the question arises as to what he’s going to do about it. What’s he going to do at prom when he gets there? Yeah, he’s got a cool car, but what’s he going to do after he parks it and shows up at prom all alone? These moments answer that question, and so they deserve to play out over more than just a few seconds.
And this idea of set-up and pay-off brings us to…
Story Arc — Connecting Moments Together Meaningfully
The counterpoint to Spielberg’s blurb on “60 two-minute scenes” is his quote on story structure:
“People have forgotten how to tell a story. Stories don’t have a middle or an end any more. They usually have a beginning that never stops beginning.”
So it’s not only about individual scenes — they still have to be connected in a way that makes a point.
Obviously, this is a HUGE topic that many of the greatest minds in history have tackled. So by all means, go read what Aristotle had to say on the subject. Go read McKee’s Story and all the other modern-day story structure gurus.
But also, let’s maybe bring this down to the level of a blog post and talk about some quick and dirty how-to’s. And with that in mind, here’s what I’ve got for ya:
- Why “Therefore” and “but” are GOOD connectors, while “And then” sucks
- Brian McDonald on 3 Act Structure in a 5 minute documentary,
- Roy H. Wiliams on Choosing an Angle, Framing Your Scene, and Deciding How to End
- Set-ups and Pay-offs
- How Narrative Misdirection Makes Set-Ups and Pay-Offs More Powerful
- Applying Save The Cat’s Beat Sheet to a 30-second Ad
And again, for me, the first element is key. If you’re not connecting one moment to the next through causation or upset, then what’s the point? Either you’re paying off the promise of a previous moment with a “therefore,” or you’re throwing the audience off-guard by subverting their expectations with a “but then.”
If you’re not doing one of those two things, you’re probably wasting time and losing the audience’s attention.
What Makes Great Theatre and Holds Attention
Ultimately, most ads suck because people think they’re making ads, and are willing to accept ads that sound like ads. They think ads don’t have to grab your attention and hold your interest like a great movie or TV show or radio drama.
They are breathtakingly, spectacularly wrong.
This is explained brilliantly over at the Sell! Sell! Blog [Emphasis Mine]:
The things that make a print advert work are the same things that make an editorial layout, or piece of printed art strong. The things that make a TV commercial great are the same things that make a TV programme, film or piece of video art great. The crucial difference being that, obviously, the ultimate job of the commercial work is to meet its brief; sell a product, change your opinion about something, etc. But still, the things that make it work in the end are the same craft skills that make other things strong in that media.
The problem comes when you forget this, and you think about making adverts. People tend to do things to adverts that they wouldn’t do to an editorial piece of design, or to a film. But unfortunately ads don’t get processed differently by people. Either it’s good or it isn’t good. There are no excuses just because it’s an ad. But still, people try to cram in way too much information, over-the-top branding, social media logos, and other guff, because it’s an ad.
Sometimes it makes you think that people, clients and agency alike, have forgotten how to make interesting things that also happen to be great ads, and they only know how to make things that look and sound like adverts.”
So the question you ought to be left with is: does your ad guy just make ads that sound like ads, or is he a master at grabbing and guiding people’s attention and desires?
Could your copywriter have scripted anything half as good as that Audi Ad?
P.S. Special shout out to my colleague Tim Miles for inspiring me to dissect this ad and answer exactly why I like it as much as I do.
You can watch the entire bidding process in the embedded YouTube video, if you want, but I’d advise skipping to the 8:14 mark, where they interview the winning bidder:
In response to the question, “what made you want that car?” Rick Champagne gave the following list:
- I grew up in that era, so it meant a lot to me.
- I’ve been watching that car for 20 years and waiting for this day [when it would finally be sold]
- I’ve been a Barret Jackson customer for well over 15 years
- The car is going to go in my living room
- I KNEW I was going to get it
So, just a few reflections from me on the event and Mr. Champagne’s list:
Sentiment & Emotional Connection MATTERS
Yes, there is also exclusivity driving up the price of this car, but by far the biggest factor, and the one mentioned first by the winning bidder, is the emotional connection to the old TV show, and in turn, to the famous Batmobile.
If you’re not taking this into account — if you’re not baking a little Magical Thinking into your marketing and advertising — you probably ought to be.
Baby Boomers Control 70% of the Disposable Income in the US
Of course, given the era of the Batman TV show, it’s not surprising that the winning bidder was a Baby Boomer. But don’t overlook the fact that the majority of the buyers sloshing obscene amounts of disposable income around that auction house were also Boomers. That’s because Baby Boomer’s hold the majority of wealth and disposable income in America.
If you’re selling luxury or high-end products or services and your marketing speaks primarily to or from a youth mindset, you might want to rethink that.
Anticipation Combined with Confidence Is An Unbeatable Combo
Rick Champagne has been waiting to buy this car for 20 years. That’s a lot of anticipation, a lot of time Rick spent imagining himself buying that car.
Rick’s also done business with the auction house, Barret Jackson, for “well over 15 years.” That’s a lot of repeat business and confidence.
It also helped, of course, that Barret Jackson had the car’s original builder/designer and single-person owner on hand to further verify the authenticity of the vehicle. Personally, I think it would have been even better to have had Adam West there, too, but you can’t have everything, I guess.
At any rate, the end result is that Rick Champagne was absolutely 100% certain that he was getting exactly what he wanted — the 100% genuine real deal — from a company that he had full faith and confidence in to deliver.
This is why he walked into the auction KNOWING that he was going to walk out as the new owner of that car.
What does your company do to help people IMAGINE buying from you and IMAGINE getting the benfit from your product or service?
When people walk into your business do they KNOW that they are going to buy from you? Or do they think they might possibly buy from you, if the pricing is competitive and you seem to have what they want?
So what are YOU doing to:
- Take advantage of, or establish, emotional connections?
- Give people full faith and confidence in your product or service?
- Allow people to develop confidence in you through previous business dealings?
- Provide something worth waiting for?
Here’s a small business example: for most HVAC companies, the pay-off is when someone buys a new Heating and Air Conditioning System from them. That’s payday.
But the smart companies don’t wait for payday to try to get your business. They’d rather you develop confidence in them BEFOREHAND.
This process is started with great ads that establish an emotional connection to the listening audience. And if that emotional connection seems based on old-timey values and slightly older cultural references, well, that’s probably NOT an accident.
This emotional connection is further strengthened by the offer of value-priced, high-quality tune-ups and fast, effective repairs. A strategy that ensures prospects call YOU when they need a tune-up.
And after 5 or more years of having their system tuned by you, YOU become the first person they call when there is a breakdown — and the only people they trust when it’s time to buy that new system. Payday!
- advanced filtration,
- added humidity control,
- room temperature equalizing functionality, and
- energy saving features.
The kind of system that makes a home noticeably more comfortable and pleasant; a luxury system that the home owner desired for some time and planned on buying “someday,” when it was time for a new one.
And that’s how you can put some super-hero-powered CRACK-POW! — BAM! into your marketing and advertising.
And while I heartily second that emotion, I usually let Tim or Charlie express it, since it’s less sour-grapey to say it after you’ve won those kinds of awards, which they have.
But the interesting thing is that not all ad awards are based merely on creativity.
But if you’d also like to see a meta-analysis of winning campaigns, showing what winning and finalist entrants had in common, then you’re also in luck.
Effie Worldwide has compliled just such an analysis in their 2012 Effie Report, and have also been kind enough to summarize their key findings as follows:
- “Effie Finalists tend to spend more on paid media, but not necessarily the most. More finalists spent in the $20 million to $40 million range than in the $40 million+ category, and nearly half spent less than $20 million.
- Effie medalists have slightly fewer goals to achieve, and campaigns with a business objective, rather than one to reach a target audience, collect more medals.
- Never underestimate David taking on Goliath – he’s 47 percent more likely to win an Effie medal.
- In the Shopper Marketing Effie categories, about two-thirds of finalists’ programs demonstrated some aspect of disruption – either by novel product placement in the store, changing the way shoppers perceived the retailer or changing perceptions of the brand.”
So what I’d like to do today is take each of Effie Worldwide’s bullet points and discuss it in terms of local advertising/branding:
Spend More on Paid Media
It’s tempting to go after “free advertising” such as Word of Mouth, Social Media, and various PR and Guerilla Marketing tactics, but while those are effective, experience shows that there’s just no replacing old-school mass media muscle when it comes to grabbing increased share of mind, and in turrn, share of market.
But if that’s the case, then why didn’t finalist spend the most on media? Frankly, I’m guessing here, but I think this indicates intelligent media buys along with the desire to effectively concentrate on one (or a few) media source(s) rather than a spending spree spread out over too many media types.
It might also indicate the investment in long-term, day-in and day-out media spends for branding rather than massive, flash-in-the-pan spending for one-time marketing blitzes.
In any case, according to Effie Worldwide, effective marketing strategies are more likely to have intelligently invested in paid media.
Focus on Fewer Goals & Tie Them to Business Objectives
There’s an apocryphal story about a copywriter who was late to a client meeting, wherein the board was going to discuss with him the 13 Points they wanted to their ad to cover.
So the copywriter walks in late carrying a hockey bag over his shoulder. Without saying a word, he places the bag on the conference table, pulls out a board that’s basically been turned into a bed of nails — a rather eye catching prop that grabs every eye in the room as it’s placed on the table.
The copywriter then takes a fry pan out of the bag and slams it down onto the bed of nails. Lifting the fry pan up, he shows the executive team the dimples. Then writer-boy swaps out the bed of nails with a board featuring a single, imposing spike potruding from it. He slams the fry pan down, forcing the spike clean through it, creating a half-inch hole big enough to stare through when mr. copywriter holds the pan up to show the board.
At this point, our intrepid copywriter says, “Now how many points do you want the ad messaging to convey?”
As it is with ads, so it is with campaigns: one point, goal, or objective per campaign is always best.
And if you want to narrow it down to one objective, you’ll want to choose a business objective. So, figure out how you want to measure success in term of your (or your client’s) business, along with what the required timeline is, THEN create a campaign clearly aimed at achieving that singular, business goal.
And by the way, “driving traffic” isn’t a business goal. Increasing gross sales might be, but merely getting traffic through the door isn’t. So conversion ain’t just a metric for online businesses…
Act Like David Rather Than Goliath
Increasing market share when you have very little of it to begin with is relatively easy, as there are plenty of competitors to steal customers from, and plenty of prospective customers to steal. On the other hand, once you’ve cornered 30–35% of the market, grabbing more of that same market is darned difficult.
This is why, again according to the Effie Report, smaller businesses taking on larger competition are more likely to find their advertising effective — because gaining marketshare always involves stealing it from someone else. So when you’re already holding almost all the marbles, there are fewer and fewer left to acquire.
For local businesses that means that once you become the Goliath of your category, you either have to open up a new store in another market, or open up another business, or business-line, in the same market. Either way, your future growth will be powered by your Davids rather than your Goliaths.
Of course, this assumes that the smaller business has something new or interesting to offer the customer… which leads us to
If you look at how that last bullet point is worded, it’s basically saying you need to do two things:
- Grab people’s attention through some form of novelty
- Provide people with some sort of Unique Selling Propositon, OR change the way they FEEL about the brand
In other words, if you’re offerng the exact same thing as everyone else, in the exact same manner, and if your ads are predictable, boring and dull, then it won’t matter that you’re investing in paid media in order to air ads aimed at achieving measurable business goals for a business that has plenty of market share left to steal — you’ll still lose.
But if you’re ads capture the interest and imagination of the buying public, while offering them a strong reason to do business with you, you’ll soon disrupt the power structure of your industry as you dominate every market you care to enter.
My only note of caution is to add in a third point: credibility. You can grab their attention and promise them a tempting and relevant benefit, but if your audience doesn’t believe you, your ads won’t achieve much.
Relevance and Credibility are the meat of the message. The novelty part simply ensures that your message is heard long enough to be deemed relevant and credible.
Interestingly enough, these are the same principles espoused by all Wizard of Ads Partners, including Tim and Charlie, so it’s gratifying to see them espoused by a institution dedicated to promoting effective advertising, such as Effie Worldwide.
If you’re interested in exploring these principles to grow your business, why not contact one of us?
2013 is just getting started, why not make it your year to thrive?
It’s a slight change, but it makes a world of difference, doesn’t it?
The photo comes courtesy of a rather clever ad campaign for The Cape Times – something I was turned onto by the always-wonderful No Caption Needed blog. The intent was to make us see these iconic photos with new eyes, allowing the idea of a self-taken-phone-camera-pic to shake up a classic. And it worked.
But it also transforrmed the photos into something creepy, especially this one.
It’s one thing to look on as the ecstasy of victory so overcomes a sailor’s sensibilities that he kisses a stranger in the street; it’s entirely another when the sailor still has the self-awareness to phone-pic himself during his supposed blissed-out moment.
Sometimes, it’s just a whole lot better when someone else is controlling the camera and the spotlight. In fact, not just sometimes, but often.
Translating this to advertising and marketing:
- When others sing your praises, it comes off as credible and genuine; when you sing your praises, you come off as a wanna be Donald Trump
- When reviews praise an item to the sky, we believe it; when product copy does so, we read it with a large grain of salt
- When you tell me how great someone else is, you come off as passionate; when you tell me how great you are, you come off as arrogant
Well.. you get the picture. Why not let someone else hold the camera. Or, if you’ve got the camera, why not point it at something other than yourself?